Preliminary Technical Program
Attendees earn AIA LU, USGBC LEED General Education, CxA and EMP continuing education credits for presentations.
Creating an Underground Research Facility to Explore the Universe
Darryl Boyce, P.Eng, Boyce Consulting Services
The presentation will cover the requirements for the specialized research facility and take the audience through the design, construction, fit-up and commissioning of the 30,000 square foot facility located 6,800 feet below ground level. The facility is located in an active nichol mine and the construction and operation have been a challenge. The presentation will explore how we dealt with these challenges
- How to turn research objectives into realistic project scope
- How to develop and project scope that can be adjusted to meet the budget challenges
- How to design the project to facilitate effective commissioning
- How to design for future flexibility for the research activities
ASHRAE New Existing Building Commissioning Standard 230 + Case Study
H. Jay Enck, CxGBS
The ASHRAE SSPC 300 project committee has developed Standard 230 Commissioning Process for Existing Buildings and Systems, which is written code language. This presentation will cover minimum requirements, which includes Owner and Cx Provider (CxP) requirements for participation and deliverables during each of the five phases of the Existing Building Commissioning Process (EBCx) and Informative Common Annexes that provide examples and guidance on developing EBCx deliverables. A case study following the ASHRAE EBCx Standard will illustrate the application on a NASA building built in 1953 that contains numerous aeronautical laboratories and offices, with typical deliverables required in Standard 230 and insights on common issues in EBCx projects.
- Learn the application of ASHRAE Standard 230 The Commissioning of Existing Buildings and Systems.
- Examine the differences between Commissioning for Existing buildings and systems to new buildings and new systems.
- Understand when elements of new building and systems commissioning becomes part of the existing building commissioning process.
- Apply lessons learned in the case study to participant’s projects
These Weren’t the Droids We Were Looking For: Real Examples from Integrated Systems Testing (and other Imperial Cx Projects)
Mark Gelfo, PE, CxA, EMP, LEED Fellow, TLC Engineering Solutions
Gary Haydu, CxA, TLC Engineering Solutions
Why were there no EPO buttons on the garbage smashers on the Death Star? The Empire didn’t do Integrated Systems Testing!
This session will be a fun and somewhat terrifying look at numerous real-world examples of “deficiencies” found from numerous commissioning projects, with an emphasis on issues found during Integrated Systems Testing. Every picture has a story and a lesson learned…even if we weren’t looking for it when we found it.
What is Integrated System Testing (IST)? Simply put, it is the testing of all building systems together under multiple building conditions and event possibilities, including loss of power, fire alarm, storm events, and Rebel Alliance attacks. When we perform IST, we always find issues we weren’t looking for, and we will share some of those examples with you during this session.
- Understand what Integrated systems testing is and why it is an important part of the commissioning process.
- Know what a black-site test is, and why it is an important test for any new building.
- Apply lessons learned from our projects case study examples on their next commissioning project.
- Understand why the original Star War trilogy is the best of the Star Wars saga.
Unifying Data from Diverse Systems and Sources to Enable Whole-Building Analytics, FDD and KPI Analysis
Roger Quesnel, SkyFoundry
Today’s facilities are increasingly populated with smart devices and equipment systems. These systems come from a variety of manufacturers and communicate using a wide range of methods from field busses based on standard protocols i.e., BACnet, OPC UA, MODBUS and others, to webservices that offer a wide range of open, yet different APIs (Application Programming Interfaces).
The challenge for the commissioning professional is that they need the data from all, or most of, these systems in order to accomplish their job of ensuring proper operation of complex building systems. The effort required to connect to and acquire usable data from diverse systems is one of the major cost and complexity barriers to implementing cost effective MBCx and data-driven retro-commissioning.
Addressing this issue has led to a focus on software that can unify and normalize diverse data sources and act as an independent data service making the data available to any and all applications that need it via a standard, open interface. In this session we will provide an introduction to the concept of an IDL – independent data layer and discuss the factors involved in achieving the necessary functionality to acquire and normalize data to support real world applications.
- To identify key characteristics of an IDL.
- To identify different sources of data that can be used in the MBCx process.
- To understand the role of semantic data/tagging in normalizing data from different sources.
- To provide basic understanding of Project-Haystack as a data tagging standard.
Cx and Energy Professionals’ Funding Opportunities, and Decarbonization Basics, as Influenced by the Inflation Reduction Act
Carl Salas, PE, Salas O’Brien
Tim Gilbert, PE, CxA, EMP, Salas O’Brien
Today’s concerns about carbon and greenhouse gas are on the front page of every newspaper, and on the top of the agenda for most of the Fortune 500 (and other) companies. As a result, Cx and energy professionals can be greatly regarded, and rewarded, if they understand the carbon conversation within the framework of Cx and energy-related efforts. More importantly, there is funding associated with the Cx and energy efforts that result in direct savings of greenhouse gasses. This presentation reviews current definitions and metrics associated with climate change and greenhouse-gas. These definitions and metrics are then framed against the typical energy (and other) savings accomplished by Cx and energy professionals. And THESE savings are framed against available funding opportunities associated with the Inflation Reduction Act passed in 2022 in the United States. The attendee will leave with a clear understanding of the nexus between Cx/energy efforts and greenhouse gas, as well as associated funding opportunities.
- Understanding the carbon conversation within the Cx and Energy related business efforts.
- Review of current definitions and metrics associated with climate change and greenhouse gas.
- Inflation Reduction Act funding opportunities for energy savings projects by Cx and Energy Professionals.
- Gaining a clear understanding of the nexus between Cx/Energy opportunities and greenhouse gas.
Commissioning of Food Service Spaces: Overview, Challenges, and Lessons Learned
Brad Davis, PE, CxA, AECOM
Many of us give little though to where we will get our next meal, because . a quick meal is always nearby whether it’s a restaurant, café in an office building, lunchroom at a school, restaurant at a hotel, or coffee shop at the airport. Similarly, especially with large and complex building projects, it’s also common for little thought to be given to the systems that serve kitchen areas.Often time food prep areas are a small portion of a large building project. These spaces are often given little special treatment by contractors. Specialty contractors may be used for food prep equipment and specialty ventilation systems. However, the sub-contractors for the overall project are likely responsible for the supporting HVAC, electrical, plumbing, life safety systems and integration of those systems.
The commissioning process offers opportunities to help overcome the challenges that food service spaces present. Understanding common issues, attention to detail, and proper teamwork are key to delivering a building with a safe and functional food service space.
- Identify features of kitchen design and system requirements.
- Understand common approaches to installation of kitchen systems.
- Recognize common challenges of integrating kitchen and building systems
- Understand how use the Commissioning Process to streamline integration and testing of kitchen systems.
Commissioning Airports: Pre and Post Inaugural Flight!
Wade Conlan, PE, CxA, Hanson Professional Services
Jonathan Noordzy, PE, CxA, Hanson Professional Services
Commissioning airports, such as the new 2.8 billion dollar South Terminal C in Orlando that opened in September of 2022, provide some unique challenges in getting work completed before the inaugural flight..the new substantial completion! This session will cover a number of those challenges that faced the entire commissioning team and the methods used to functionally test those systems. This includes the testing of a large central utility plant with minimal cooling load, at best. Dealing with the required levels of resiliency for an airport to be in operation 24/7 will be discussed. In addition, some unique challenges working on a “single” project with two construction managers.
- Understand the nuances of different systems to commission for airports.
- Understand an approach to functionally test a CEP with minimal load.
- Understand the resiliency testing needs for an airport.
- Understand commissioning large multiple buildings in a single project.
Commissioning for Climate Change Resiliency in Healthcare
Noelle Thornton, PE, CxA, CannonDesign
Brett Farbstein, CEM, LEED AP, CannonDesign
Individuals and communities rely on hospitals, nursing homes, and other long-term care facilities to be operational during severe storms and natural disasters. Whether it is ensuring the building envelope has low air infiltration or that power to critical equipment stays on, the commissioning process is a valuable tool to verifying facilities are prepared for increasingly more frequent extreme events. The presentation will describe a disaster, emergency and vulnerability assessment (DEVA) and review commissioning and testing system performance requirements to be completed before an emergency.
- Attendees will learn how to understand their vulnerability to chronic climate change and acute natural disaster events.
- Attendees will understand how to conduct a Disaster, Emergency and Vulnerability Assessment (DEVA) and why it is necessary.
- Attendees will understand potential resilience strategies for healthcare facilities.
- Attendees will learn how to use the commissioning process for new construction and existing buildings to ensure operations during emergencies.
Commissioning Process for Federal Facilities: Case Studies of Varying Expectations
John W. Thompson, PE, CxA, RS&H
Per legislative mandate, Total Building Commissioning and the process of ensuring that a building’s performance meets or exceeds owner’s functional requirements and design intent is a required activity for all newly constructed federal buildings. Evolving Federal, State and Local mandates, in conjunction with voluntary, market-based standards, have transformed the Cx marketplace and created a paradigm shift in how to retain quality assurance in building performance.
What began as a tool to ensure that building owners get their money’s worth from design and construction professionals, commissioning is now known to be the most cost-effective measure available for reducing energy use, lowering costs and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in buildings. A recent meta-analysis by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory found that Re/Retro-commissioning yields a median 16% energy savings with a payback time of 1.1 years, for a cash-on-cash return of 91%.
Despite the well-documented evidence, however, the purpose of LEED commissioning has been historically underutilized in federal new-build projects. In this presentation, case studies that followed LEED Fundamental and Enhanced Commissioning guidelines for newly built and renovated facilities for the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security will be reviewed and analyzed. Perceptions and expectations of the Cx process from the perspective of all stakeholders including owners, designers, contractors, and commissioning specialists will also be discussed.
The purpose is to illustrate that there are varying levels of agreement on “What Commissioning Is and Is Not.” The session will illustrate that LEED Commissioning does not establish the final boundaries and benefits for the overall Total Building Commissioning process. The potential energy conservation and utility cost-saving benefits that could be captured go beyond LEED and enhance our country’s goal of energy independence.
- Understand Federal Requirements for Total Building Commissioning.
- Know the five phases of the commissioning process.
- See how stakeholder expectations of a commissioned facility often vary and may conflict.
- Reconcile expectation issues to the benefit and satisfaction of the owner.
The Benefits of MBCx from Day 0
Jason Beneker, CEM, KitePharma
Dotty Hage, MelRok
Building commissioning services have been an accepted practice to validate, document, and ensure compliance with the design intent for a facility’s HVAC mechanical systems. However, post-construction warranty phase commissioning is not necessarily a standard nor is it a requirement for Cx service providers. This in turn leaves a void in the handover from commissioning to facilities’ operations and maintenance (O&M). The disconnect between Cx and O&M puts a strain on the facilities’ HVAC staff trying to ensure operations based on the design intent. Ongoing Monitoring-Based Commissioning (MBCx) bridges the disconnect between design intent, Cx, and O&M.
In this case study, an ongoing MBCx program was implemented on a brand-new, newly commissioned, 300,000 ft2 pharmaceutical facility. Even though the facility was newly commissioned, over 85 faults and opportunities were found. Anomalies were found in a variety of HVAC systems including the central plant, air handlers, and the terminal units. The most serious involved the chiller plant where a significant refrigerant leak from one of three chillers was identified.
The type of anomalies highlighted by the ongoing MBCx included sequence of operation requirements not being met (23% of all faults), poor configuration of terminal units (45%), TAB requirements not met (14%), and excessive heating (9%), among others.
These findings are surprising given that the facility was newly commissioned and handed over to the owner. Thus, we believe that ongoing MBCx is not only important in warranty or post construction phase, but is also important during the commissioning phase.
- Understand the benefit of implementing a MBCx program during initial commissioning.
- Understand real-world examples of the benefit of MBCx.
- Understand the gaps in the current hand-off process between Cx and operations & maintenance
Test, Adjust & Balance; Lessons Learned for Engineers, Cx & Energy Providers
Jim Hall, PE, TBE, CxA, System Dynamics, Inc.
Testing, Adjusting and Balancing (TAB) is a process utilized for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and related systems to optimize system performance and prove that design intent has been met. Equipment selection, improper and proper use of TAB instrumentation, system layout for testing and maintenance access, document review strategies, defining meaningful and useful TAB data, incorporating new industry product technologies, and project scheduling issues are all common challenges that a TAB provider encounters. This article offers solutions and ideas to help overcome these challenges, for the benefit of the design professional, construction team, commissioning provider and ultimately the building owner.
- Understand the proper use, application, and limitations of the TAB instrumentation.
- Understand what is accurate, useful and meaningful data that is obtained in the field vs. laboratory data for use on their project.
- Gain an understanding of HVAC systems and the TAB/measurement process; how can systems be set up to allow for proper data collection.
- Promote a project team approach to address schedule challenges, design alternatives as it relates to balancing device types/locations, equipment usage and HVAC system operation.
Methods of Visualization Testing for Hotel Smoke Removal Systems
Jim Kelleher, Ameritech Data Solutions
This presentation illustrates methods of conducting smoke alarm and initiation and subsequent smoke removal visualization testing in a hotel environment. The discussion of an actual field performance test will include pictures of the smoke generating equipment, effects on field of view for each, and explore these demonstration options for owner review and acceptance of their smoke removal systems via direct observation testing.
Three methods used to generate smoke for three different evacuation system scenarios at a Marriott Hotel will be discussed. One option uses an inline fan and thermally generated plume along with smoke candle generation to trigger and demonstrate a 16-story atrium smoke removal system. A second option uses an inline fan along with smoke candle generation to trigger and demonstrate a ballroom smoke removal system. A third uses a theatrical fog generator to demonstrate the smoke removal capabilities in a more confined environment of a hotel corridor.
The session will discuss construction and design considerations of the various methods as they relate to the architectural constraints, the theory and application of smoke generation methods, and the factors that helped decide which was the best solution for each scenario.
- Understanding varying types of smoke evacuation systems as they relate to architectural factors.
- Understanding the benefit of thermally assisted smoke plume generation for a high ceiling environment.
- Use, control, and limitations of theatrical fog generators for field performance testing.
- Benefits of varying types of smoke generation, and a comparison of smoke versus fog generation.
Ready to Operate: Bridging the Construction to Operations Gap
Charles Jackson, PE, CxA, Sustainable Building Partners
Alex Kozinets, PE, LEED AP, Facility Grid
Derek De Jesus, CxA, ACG Education Committee Chair
Today’s buildings and their supporting systems are ever-more-complicated, as the design and functionality must meet stringent energy and sustainability criteria. During the Cx process valuable information is obtained that can affect the sustainable operation of the building throughout its lifecycle. Ensuring that this information is effectively shared with the operations team is critical and technology can help. Join us to learn how today’s Cx software can bridge the gap between construction and operations and set your team up for long term success.
- Help building owners identify “bridging” requirements early in the project.
- Learn how to save time and money by focusing on the operational requirements of buildings during the pre-design and design phases.
- Create a baseline for building a framework for ongoing Cx by specifying metering and trending parameters during the design phase and establishing trends during construction.
- See how Cx software can streamline the transfer of valuable knowledge while serving as the bridge between construction and operations.
Commissioning for Today’s Commercial Buildings
Scott West, PE, HFA
The COVID-19 pandemic may be mostly over, but it has had a number of profound impacts on commercial buildings that will have lasting effects. Indoor environmental quality has taken on a new importance, but what enhanced practices will stay around beyond the pandemic? How do building managers cope with partially-occupied buildings in the fuzzy, hybrid world we all find ourselves in? Commissioning authorities have a unique opportunity to help close these gaps and ensure soft landings from design through to construction and handover for operations.
- Review how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted commercial building HVAC systems and associated operations.
- Discuss what sorts of operational practices will likely carry on, beyond the pandemic.
- Discuss the challenges associated with commissioning partially-occupied buildings.
- Address how these challenges can be an opportunity for commissioning service providers add value on projects and ensure smooth building handover.
Boilers – Why Commissioning is Crucial for Proper Operation and Training
Peter Turek, CxA, EMP, CBRE/Heery
A boiler system is not overly complex, but if errors are made during the design or installation, it is the owners and operators who suffers the consequences. A properly designed and installed boiler plant will allow the end user years of proper operation, but not all projects end happily. We will briefly explain the differences between low pressure and high-pressure boilers, hot water and steam, discuss case studies including an explosion due to a design drawing error, installation, and steps to ensure the operations team is properly trained for safe operation and required maintenance.
- Attendees will understand the difference between steam and hot water boilers.
- Attendees will learn how to review the specifications and identify potential omissions.
- Attendees will understand the necessity of water treatment.
- Attendees will learn new technologies including adding hydrogen to natural gas.
The Power of RCx + MBCx: How to Sustain Energy Savings
Clifford Alberts, PE, AESC, Inc.
Susan Freed, CEM, LEED AP, County of San Diego
The County of San Diego is a leader in California in terms of implementing progressive energy and sustainability goals and programs. In 2017 the county published a net zero energy plan to formalize aggressive energy savings goals. The plan served as a catalyst to fund a series of RCx projects which identified many opportunities for low cost/high savings measures. The nature of the projects also revealed the need for an MBCx program to protect those energy savings from drift and human error. The RCx projects, MBCx pilot and MBCx program have achieved significant, persistent, energy savings as well as lessons learned on how to make monitoring a standard practice.
- Gain insight into the planning, piloting and goal setting of a government based MBCx program
- Gain insight into the MBCx team structure and critical vendors
- Clarify monitoring tools utilized, and the role of analytics
- Gain insight into frequency and types of discrepancies
Commissioning HVAC Systems for Sustainable Indoor Air Quality
Erik Malmstrom, SafeTraces
Raj Setty, Setty & Associates
Building owners and operators have the unenviable job of figuring out how to respond to the growing demand for better indoor air quality (IAQ), which has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, while at the same time responding to expanding mandates to electrify and decarbonize buildings to address the climate crisis.
Heating and cooling large volumes of outside air to maintain comfort while diluting indoor-generated contaminants like airborne pathogens and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be very energy intensive in hot and cold climates. Conditioning all of this outside air also makes it harder to implement net zero energy solutions due to larger heating and cooling loads.
However, do the health and safety benefits of many common IAQ strategies justify the cost-, energy-, and carbon-penalties associated with increased outdoor air rates, increased filtration levels, and increased HVAC system run times? And are there alternative strategies that reduce the tension between IAQ and sustainability, particularly those making use of often-more energy efficient air cleaning and disinfection technologies?
In recent years, emerging commissioning approaches have enhanced the ability of engineering professionals to address the above challenges and questions, and sharpen field measurement and verification of HVAC system performance leveraging science, technology, and data, including aerosol tracing technology, real-time IAQ sensors and monitors, and IoT-enabled building management systems.
This session will provide: 1) a conceptual framework for commissioning HVAC systems for sustainable indoor air quality; 2) practical strategies for integrating emerging approaches and technologies with traditional commissioning services; and 3) applied case studies to illustrate the conceptual framework and integrated commissioning approach in action and highlight the safety, financial, and energy efficiency return on investment for real world clients.
- Recognize steps for sustainable indoor air quality-driven commissioning tests for existing buildings
- Integrate emerging technologies and commissioning approaches into traditional commissioning approaches
- Strengthen the ability to perform field measurement and verification of HVAC system performance for sustainable indoor air quality
- Leverage sustainable indoor air quality-driven commissioning to develop alternative strategies beyond increasing outdoor air levels
Energy Performance Across Building Life Cycle
Baskar Subbarao, PE, CxA, Zodiac
This session explore building energy performance during schematic design, design development, design, construction, O&M, assessment, measure, benchmark, investigation, implement improvements and hand-off. Building energy performance targets is updated during building design, construction, energy modeling, new building commissioning, measurement & verification, ongoing commissioning, energy audit, building tune-up and existing building commissioning.
- Discuss Building Performance Management during building design, energy modeling, new building commissioning, measurement & verification, ongoing commissioning, construction, energy audit, building tune-up and existing building commissioning.
- Understand impact of Building Performance Management during Schematic design, design development, design, construction, O&M, assessment, measurement, benchmark, investigation, implementation and hand-off.
- Gain an appreciation for planning, monitoring, controlling and communicating building energy consumption.
- Lesson learnt from projects.
Commissioning – An Owner’s Perspective
John Schaub, Rock Island Arsenal
Proposals for commissioning work can often vary widely in terms of the level of effort. Unfortunately, the low bid typically provides the minimal service and in many cases, neither the project specifications nor the commissioning guidelines provide adequate guidance on whether a given level of performance meets with the owner’s expectations.
The Rock Island Arsenal has been actively using the commissioning process since 2014. Projects have included residential HVAC systems (3-4 Tons) to commercial HVAC systems (50-300 Tons).
This presentation will review the evolution of the commissioning process on the Rock Island Arsenal by looking at various projects over the past eight years. What difficulties or problems were encountered during the commissioning process? What happened after the commissioning process? How have these problems affected the procurement process at the Rock Island Arsenal. Finally, what needs to be done to improve and refine the commissioning process.
- Why Commissioning?
- Defining the requirements.
- What can the owner expect to find?
- What needs to be done to improve and refine the Commissioning Process?
Electric Rate Structures – Importance of Analysis
Robert Knoedler, PE, CxA, EMP, Hanson Professional Services
Mat Coalson, Hanson Professional Services
An important part of an EMP’s services is examining their client’s energy usage (demand and consumption), establishing an energy balance and baseline. Along with an audit, this analysis affords insight to potential savings through changes in operations, as well as the estimated payback for implementation of various conservation measures.
However, equally important is an analysis of the client’s electrical rate structure. Electrical utility providers have a broad range of rates depending upon customer type (residential, commercial, industrial) and service size. With an increase in customers adding on-site generation, advances in energy storage and smart meter technology, and an increase in overall demand for electricity, utilities have become creative in their rate structures, often offering incentives to customers seeking to control their demand and costs.
This session will examine some of the rate structures commonly used by various utility companies, including net metering for customers with on-site generation and various incentives with the use of sub-metering. We will discuss analysis of these rates with respect to energy management, as well as the use of ‘blended’ electrical rates (often used in energy savings calculations) and show where these are valid and where more detailed calculations should be employed. We will briefly share information on the U.S. Utility Rate Database and discuss forecasting of future energy costs utilizing the government’s Energy Escalation Rate Calculator (EERC).5
- Examining the various types of electrical rate structures currently utilized by utility companies.
- Importance of analysis by energy managers; comparing alternate rate structures and the appropriate use of ‘blended’ electrical rates.
- Discussion of energy / cost saving strategies, including energy audits, retro-commissioning and demand response programs.
- Examination of various publicly available resources, including the U.S. Utility Rate Database and the government’s Energy Escalation Rate Calculator
Energy Auditing/Retro Commissioning Projects: Why Some Exceed Expectations and Some Do Not!
Al LaPera, CxA, EMP, LEED AP, TLC Engineering Solutions
Why do some energy management projects fail to achieve their goals, while others exceed them? This session will address common pitfalls and best practices!
- Explain why some retro-commissioning Energy Conservation Measures (ECM’s) fail to achieve their goals and others exceed.
- Understanding that success does not happen by chance! How careful analysis and planning prior to execution greatly enhances the odds of successfully attaining objective relating to being a healthy building for occupants and an energy efficient building for its ownership (and society).
- Understand the methods for communication with the client so they understand the project’s objectives. Helps set their and your, expectations. How to help them understand that you want to align their objectives to the projects outcome to improve buildings; healthfulness, efficiency and their sustainability goals.
- Describe why some ECM’s are successful and why some are not. Basically what are winners and what were busts! Understanding the components & outcomes of various audits.
Efficiency Assessment for Real Estate Transactions and ESG Reporting
Krishnan Gowri, Ph.D., BEMP, LEED AP, Fellow ASHRAE, Intertek
Energy benchmarking and efficiency assessments have become a necessity for real estate transactions to meet the needs of owners and investors for high performing building assets. Intertek has worked with several national clients in developing energy and environmental performance metrics required for ESG reporting by real estate investment companies. Over 150 assessments were done during the past eighteen months covering six major building sectors.
This presentation will cover the challenges in energy benchmarking and efficiency assessments during due diligence phase of real estate transactions. New simplified field audit forms have been developed and integrated with property condition assessment field visits to collect the additional data required for identifying energy efficiency measures. Attendees will learn how to use energy modeling and simplified calculation techniques to identify and prioritize efficiency opportunities.
- Industry standards and framework for building performance assessments.
- Tools and techniques for energy benchmarking and identification of efficiency measures.
- Field auditing requirements and energy modeling for benchmarking.
- ESG Reporting metrics.
A Deep Dive Into IAQ Data Using Data Analytics and Machine Learning
Julien Stamatakis, Attune
The concerns about, and the importance of, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has increased substantially. COVID-19 has sensitized the general public about what may be in the air that they are breathing. Building owners and operators are rightfully responding to these concerns in leveraging technology such as the Internet of Things (IoT) to bring assurance to building occupants.
As it is well known that expiratory human activities generate sub-micron airborne droplets, which can also carry viruses (e.g., COVID-19), enhanced air filtration strategies have been introduced using pre-filters or filters with different MERV ratings for different particle sizes. The efficacy of those advanced air filtration systems can only be determined using particulate matter (PM) sensors having sufficient quality and accuracy. This session will include an in-depth discussion of the different design choices of modern PM sensors to enable understanding of the impact on the quality of the PM data.
Additionally, an analysis of current outside-air intake strategies is provided in leveraging CO2 data from outside air, supply air, and return air monitoring points to calculate the percentage of outside air particles coming in vs the percentage of recirculated particles. HVAC system design can be further evaluated using practical application of Machine Learning (ML) to detect different system anomalies. For example, ML can be applied to (1) ensure outside air intake is adequate based on occupancy, and (2) detect anomalies in filtration efficacy that would indicate filter issue events that would generate more particles than the HVAC system can handle.
These case studies and others will highlight the utility of capturing real-time IAQ data from the physical environment. Illuminating the hidden reality of real-time airborne conditions will provide key decision makers with the data needed to not only numerically assess levels of airborne pollutants, but also leverage such real-time data in managing key HVAC system infrastructures within buildings.
1. Understand modern particulate matter sensors and the impact on the quality of the data.
2. Understand the significance of CO2 data from outside air, supply air, and return air monitoring points.
3. How machine learning can be applied to outside air intake and used to detect anomalies in filtration efficacy
4. Understand the use of capturing real-time IAQ data and how to leverage it for managing key HVAC system infrastructures in buildings.